Consolidating democracy in ghana
O’Donnell 1996 also challenges the view that consolidation can only take one path.He pushes this argument further by proposing that imperfect democracies that are not fully and formally institutionalized can also endure. 1996, which argues that certain sociopolitical practices can prevent and undo consolidation.Since countries have unique historical circumstances, specific countries will have to combine conditions in the model that are relevant to that society to consolidate its democracy. The right combination will depend on the specific needs of the individual country. Quainoo is Professor of Political Science and Director of the Frederick Douglass Institute of East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania.
Two main types of transitions are discerned: top-down and bottom-up.
What conditions motivate a transition to democracy?
Can the dynamics of a transition influence its outcome?
Although democratic consolidation can be the endpoint of democratization, it is important to understand that these two processes are generally driven by different factors (see the Oxford Bibliographies article on political science “Democratization”).
This article focuses on the institutional, economic, social, and international causes of democratic consolidation as distinct from democratization.
A democracy becomes consolidated—that is, it is expected to endure—when political actors accept the legitimacy of democracy and no actor seeks to act outside democratic institutions for both normative and self-interested reasons.